FUN IN THE SUN
Babies under 6 months:
— The two main recommendations from the AAP to prevent sunburn are to avoid sun exposure, and dress infants in lightweight long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and brimmed hats that shade the neck to prevent sunburn. However when adequate clothing and shade are not available, parents can apply a minimal amount of suncreen with at least 15 SPF (sun protection factor) to small areas, such as the infant’s face and the back of the hands. If an infant gets sunburn, apply cold compresses to the affected area.
For All Other Children:
— The first, and best, line of defense against the sun is covering up. Wear a hat with a three-inch brim or a bill facing forward, sunglasses (look for sunglasses that block 99-100% of ultraviolet rays), and cotton clothing with a tight weave.
— Stay in the shade whenever possible, and limit sun exposure during the peak intensity hours – between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
— On both sunny and cloudy days use a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or greater that protects against UVB and UVA rays.
— Be sure to apply enough sunscreen – about one ounce per sitting for a young adult.
— Reapply sunscreen every two hours, or after swimming or sweating.
— Use extra caution near water and sand (and even snow!) as they reflect UV rays and may result in sunburn more quickly.
HEAT STRESS IN EXERCISING CHILDREN
— The intensity of activities that last 15 minutes or more should be reduced whenever high heat and humidity reach critical levels.
— At the beginning of a strenuous exercise program or after traveling to a warmer climate, the intensity and duration of exercise should be limited initially and then gradually increased during a period of 10 to 14 days to accomplish acclimatization to the heat.
— Before prolonged physical activity, the child should be well-hydrated. During the activity, periodic drinking should be enforced, for example, each 20 minutes, 5 oz of cold tap water or a flavored sports drink for a child weighing 90 lbs, and 9 oz for an adolescent weighing 130 lbs, even if the child does not feel thirsty.
— Clothing should be light-colored and lightweight and limited to one layer of absorbent material to facilitate evaporation of sweat. Sweat-saturated shirts should be replaced by dry clothing.
— Practices and games played in the heat should be shortened and more frequent water/hydration breaks should be instituted.
— Install a fence at least four-feet high around all four sides of the pool. The fence should not have openings or protrusions that a young child could use to get over, under, or through.
— Make sure pool gates open out from the pool, and self-close and self-latch at a height children can’t reach.
— If the house serves as the fourth side of a fence surrounding a pool, install an alarm on the exit door to the yard and the pool.
— Never leave children alone in or near the pool or spa, even for a moment.
— Keep rescue equipment (a shepherd’s hook – a long pole with a hook on the end – and life preserver) and a portable telephone near the pool. Choose a shepherd’s hook and other rescue equipment made of fiberglass or other materials that do not conduct electricity.
— Avoid inflatable swimming aids such as “floaties.” They are not a substitute for approved life vests and can give children a false sense of security.
— Children age 4 and older should be taught to swim. Parents may choose to start swimming lessons before age 4 if their children are developmentally ready, but swim programs should never be seen as “drown proofing” a child of any age.
— Whenever infants or toddlers are in or around water, an adult should be within arm’s length, providing “touch supervision.”
— Avoid Entrapment: Suction from pool and spa drains can trap an adult underwater. Do not use a pool or spa if there are broken or missing drain covers. Ask your pool operator if your pool or spa’s drains are compliant with the Pool and Spa Safety Act.
— Large inflatable above-ground pools have become increasingly popular for backyard use. Children may fall in if they lean against the soft side of an inflatable pool. Although such pools are often exempt from local pool fencing requirements, it is essential that they be surrounded by an appropriate fence just as a permanent pool would be so that children cannot gain unsupervised access.
— Don’t use scented soaps, perfumes or hair sprays on your child.
— Avoid areas where insects nest or congregate, such as stagnant pools of water, uncovered foods and gardens where flowers are in bloom.
— Avoid dressing your child in clothing with bright colors or flowery prints.
— To remove a visible stinger from skin, gently back it out by scraping it off horizontally with a credit card or your fingernail.
— Combination sunscreen/insect repellent products should be avoided because sunscreen needs to be reapplied every two hours, but the insect repellent should not be reapplied.
— Use insect repellents containing DEET when need to prevent insect related diseases such as ticks which can transmit Lyme Disease, and mosquitoes which can transmit West Nile Virus and other viruses.
— The current CDC and AAP recommendation for children over 2 months of age is to use 10- 30 percent DEET. DEET should not be used on children under 2 months of age.
— The effectiveness is similar for 10-30% DEET but the duration of effect varies. Ten percent DEET provides protection for about 2 hours – 30% for about 5 hours – choose the lowest concentration that will provide required length of coverage.
— The concentration of DEET varies significantly from product to product, so read the label of any product you purchase. Children should wash off repellents when back indoors.
— As an alternative to DEET, Picaridin has become available in the U.S. in concentrations of 5-10%.
For more information on DEET: http://www.aapnews.org/cgi/content/full/e200399v1
The playground should have safety-tested mats or loose-fill materials (shredded rubber, sand, wood chips, or bark) maintained to a depth of at least 9 inches. The protective surface should be installed at least 6 feet (more for swings and slides) in all directions from the equipment.
— Equipment should be carefully maintained. Open “s” hooks or protruding bolt ends can be hazardous.
— Swing seats should be made of soft materials such as rubber, plastic or canvas.
— Make sure children cannot reach any moving parts that might pinch or trap any body part.
— Never attach—or allow children to attach—ropes, jump ropes, leashes, or similar items to play equipment; children can strangle on these.
— Make sure metal slides are cool to prevent children’s legs from getting burned.
— Do not allow children to play barefoot on the playground.
— Parents should never purchase a home trampoline or allow children to use home trampolines.
— Parents should supervise children on play equipment to make sure they are safe.
— Do not push your child to ride a 2-wheeled bike until he or she is ready, at about age 5 or 6. Consider the child’s coordination and desire to learn to ride. Stick with coaster (foot) brakes until your child is older and more experienced for hand brakes.
— Take your child with you when you shop for the bike, so that he or she can try it out. The value of a properly fitting bike far outweighs the value of surprising your child with a new one. For more information on finding the proper fit, go to http://www.aap.org/family/bicycle.htm
— Buy a bike that is the right size, not one your child has to “grow into.” Oversized bikes are especially dangerous.
— Your child needs to wear a helmet on every bike ride, no matter how short or how close to home. Many accidents happen in driveways, on sidewalks, and on bike paths, not just on streets. Children learn best by observing you. Set the example: Whenever you ride, put on your helmet.
— When purchasing a helmet, look for a label or sticker that says the helmet meets the CPSC safety standard.
— A helmet protects your child from serious injury, and should always be worn. And remember, wearing a helmet at all times helps children develop the helmet habit.
— A helmet should be worn so that it is level on the head, not tipped forwards or backwards. The strap should be securely fastened, and you should not be able to move the helmet in any direction. If needed, the helmet’s sizing pads can help improve the fit.
SKATEBOARD, SCOOTER, IN-LINE SKATING AND HEELYS SAFETY
Children should never ride skateboards or scooters in or near traffic.
— All skateboarders and scooter-riders should wear a helmet and other protective gear; wrist guards are particularly important.
— Communities should continue to develop skateboard parks, which are more likely to be monitored for safety than ramps and jumps constructed by children at home.
— While in-line skating or wearing Heelys, be sure to wear appropriate protective equipment and only skate on designated paths or rinks and not on the street.
LAWN MOWER SAFETY
— Try to use a mower with a control that stops the mower from moving forward if the handle is let go.
— Children younger than 16 years should not be allowed to use ride-on mowers. Children younger than 12 years should not use walk-behind mowers.
— Make sure that sturdy shoes (not sandals or sneakers) are worn while mowing.
— Prevent injuries from flying objects, such as stones or toys, by picking up objects from the lawn before mowing begins. Have anyone who uses a mower wear hearing and eye protection.
— Do not pull the mower backward or mow in reverse unless absolutely necessary, and carefully look for children behind you when you mow in reverse.
— Always turn off the mower and wait for the blades to stop completely before removing the grass catcher, unclogging the discharge chute, or crossing gravel paths, roads, or other areas.
— Do not allow children to ride as passengers on ride-on mowers.
Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Pediatrics.